Chemically water is proportionate combination of hydrogen & oxygen. But nowhere water in its chemically proportionate form available. Because water cycle is as the heat of the sun evaporates water from the earth’s surface into the atmosphere, leaving impurities behind. As the vapor cools, it condenses and falls back to earth as rain, snow or other forms of precipitation. During water cycle & surface water generation, a lot of salts present in atmosphere mixes with water affecting quality.
Water is generally classified into two groups: Surface Water and Ground Water. Surface water is water found in a river, lake or other surface impoundment, exposed to many different contaminants. Ground Water is that which is trapped beneath the found like bore well.
Biological Impurities: Bacteria, Virus, and Parasites.
Inorganic Imputities: Dirt and Sediment or Turbidity – fine sand, clay, soil, and precipitated salts.
Total Dissolved Solids: These substances are dissolved rock and other compounds from the earth. The most problematic are Nitrates, Sodium, Sulfates, Barium, Copper, and Fluoride. Minerals exist in water mostly as INORGANIC salts.
Toxic Metals or Heavy Metals: Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Silver. Asbestos – It has been linked with gastrointestinal cancer.
Radioactivity: Radioactive wastes leach from mining operations into groundwater supplies.
Tastes and Odors
Pesticides and Herbicides
Toxic Organic Chemicals
Chlorine, this creates toxic organic chemicals such as chloroform, and Bromodichloromethane.
Untreated sewage directly into rivers and streams, which are used for drinking, bathing and washing. Sources of water
– Direct additions.
– Discharge of domestic, industrial, or agricultural effluents.
– Direct application of herbicides to control water plants that interfere with man’s use of freshwaters.
– Direct application of insecticides to fresh waters to destroy larvae of mosquitoes, the vector of malaria.
– Molluscicides widely used in the tropics to control the snail vectors of schistosomiasis.
– Indirect additions.
– Run-off of insecticides and herbicides applied to the land.
– Carelessly dumped waste pesticides and their empty containers in pools or streams.
– Land fill sites and toxic waste dumps contaminate ground water.
Due to the different characteristics of these two types of water, it is important that you know the source of your water – Surface or Ground. Of the 326 million cubic miles of water on earth, only about 3% of it is fresh water; and ¾ of that is frozen. Only ½ of 1% of all water is underground; about 1/50th of 1% of all water is found in lakes and streams. The average human is about 70% water. You can only survive 5 or fewer days without water.
Distribution of the earth’s water
Oceans and seas 97.29%. Ice caps and glaciers 2.09%, Underground aquifers 0.61%, Lakes and rivers 0.01%, Atmosphere 0.01%.
Boiling reduces the threat of living organisms. It serves as a method for killing bacteria during emergencies, it is not recommended for long term use. Very little is removed by boiling. You may kill germs, but you still have dirt, sediment, dissolved solids, bad taste, and odor remaining – there may also be many chemical contaminants. Even the dead bacteria, remains with in water. Chances of evaporating pure water.
The most efficient and cost effective approach to the problem of water purity is to treat just the water you will consume for drinking and cooking where you will consume it.
Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection uses a UV light source, which is enclosed in a transparent protective sleeve. It is mounted so that water can pass through a flow chamber, and UV rays are admitted and absorbed into the stream. When ultraviolet energy is absorbed by the reproductive mechanisms of bacteria and viruses, the genetic material (DNA/RNA) is rearranged and they become inactive for a certain period of time (18/20 hrs.).
For that period are therefore considered dead. After that span of time bacteria & viruses may regenerate themselves. UV systems are generally not effective in removing cysts such as giardia and cryptosporidium because of the exposure time the contaminant.
The term TDS describes all solids (usually mineral salts) that are dissolved in water. The TDS and the electrical conductivity are in a close connection. The more salts are dissolved in the water; the higher is the value of the electric conductivity. It is measured in ppm (parts per million) or mg/ltr. Technically it is sum of all cation & anion present in water. TDS can be measured by TDS meter or in laboratory chemical analysis.
No way, the value of TDS affects the quality & taste of water. High TDS is due to mainly presence of undesirable mineral or quantity of salts above than permissible limit. As per standard whole TDS of drinking water must be well in limit and volume of each salt also must be well with in limit. Your water may be of low TDS, but it is not necessary that every salt is in permissible limit.
If your water has iron, arsenic content higher than required & other salts well in limit, even than total TDS mat be well in limit, because it is sum of ions. To be sure for permissible limit of every salt, it is to be checked our, what treatment is given for water. Membrane technology (RO) is the only answer to protect it. More over, if the well treated water also travels through pipe line, everywhere possibility of mixing of other elements & bacterial growth due to poor maintenance of pipe line.
Reverse osmosis is a separation process in which dissolved ions, heavy molecular weight compounds, bacteria, viruses and particulate matter are removed from a liquid. When water is passed through membrane under designed pressure, water is splitted into two streams.
The pure water comes after passing through the membrane holes, containing only permissible intergradient. All undesirable elements including salts & biological impurities flushes out along with reject water. Before membrane, water is pretreated by passing through softener, sediment filter, carbon filter & chlorination if desired.
We can provide hydro pneumatic tanks (from 4 gallon to 11 gallon capacity). Water remains intact, because tanks are air tight, no chance of bacterial growth. We can also make automation for storage with existing water coolers, plastic syntax tanks etc.
Many factors affect the separation process, including: pressure, temperature, flow rate, percent of passage through membrane, amount of matter in raw liquid, and type of matter in raw liquid. All of these factors must be considered in the design of the reverse osmosis system. The basic components of the reverse osmosis system are the membranes and the pump which drives liquid through the membranes.
The balance of the system componently is made up of piping and valving to route fluid through the system, monitoring apparatus, electronic control of the process, and raw fluid pretreatment. As purified water passes through the membrane it leaves the rejected contaminants behind, concentrating the solution at the membrane surface. The system must be properly designed and maintained to avoid the precipitation of these concentrated contaminants on the membrane surface.
Pretreatment processes such as filtration, ion exchange, antiscalant injection, and pH adjustment are utilized to assist in preventing membrane fouling. Properly pretreated feed water is delivered to the membranes by the pressure boosting pump. As pressure is increased more water passes through the membrane. The amount of water passing through the membrane is referred to as flux and is generally expressed in gallons per square foot of membrane per day (GFD). Every membrane has a maximum recommended flux. The higher the flux the more water is produced.
Contaminant rejection by the membrane remains constant and therefore the more water that passed through the membrane the higher the quality of this permeate water. It would seem that it would be best to operate membranes at maximum flux because they would produce the most water and the highest quality water. However, as more water is produced more contaminants are left behind and the concentration of contaminants at the membrane surface increases.
High quality system design utilizes conservative flux values for prolonged membrane life. Computer design programs predict membrane performance under expected conditions and generate pressure and flow values for system operation. After installation and start up of a reverse osmosis system, the operational values of pressure and flow must be noted. Significant deviation from these values indicates that system maintenance is required.
RO system maintenance generally consists of prefilter cartridge changes, mixing, and addition of chemicals, and periodic membrane cleaning. These processes are critical to membrane longevity and proper system operation.
RO (Reverse Osmosis) is the only available process, which can remove al the unwanted contaminants from water, that too without adding any chemical. Moreover it is a designed & integrated procedure. You can have the privilege of selection of hygienically & economically criteria depend on different type of raw water available.
Yes, it is not readymade system. RO system always depends on water quality, feed water pressure desired production rate, space available, place of installation, peak hour water requirement, storage facility etc.
Up to some extent right, but only for those RO manufacturers, who don’t design; rather assemble without considering all above said factors. There is a correlation between TDS, membrane Pressure, Outflow of water, Flow restrictors, & other important parameters. For example, if you have used more psi booster pump then after some time TDS of water will increase due to permanent enlargement of membrane holes. If you opt for low psi booster pump, then production rate will be less. If the water desires softener treatment and you didn’t, choking of membrane & filter will certainly take place.
A lot of other problem may arise due to improper selection of parts. In short it is a designed & integrated engineering product. It is a work of expertise man. As per maintenance required at all, provided you got a designed & integrated product as per your raw water condition.
Yes it is a key part of RO system. Membranes (made of polymer films) are thin films of porous material which can be used for a number of chemical separations. The pores can range from atomic dimensions (<10 angstroms) to .000001 microns. The small pores of the membranes can serve as a physical barrier, preventing passage of certain materials such as salt, bacteria, and viruses while allowing the free passage of water and air. The lesser size of pore whole, quality of water will improve. The quality of water hitting membrane must be tuned to soft by giving proper pretreatment. This increases membrane life.
Drinking Water Standards
BIS has decided different standards for drinking water as per resourcing of raw water, but always stressing on that each component of water must be well with in permissible limit. That permissible limit can be attained by only RO procedure because it is the only process which deals with every salts of water.
Eurotech Water Systems can assist you in all of your water treatment needs. There’s no need to go anywhere else. With our combined experience in the water treatment business our support team can quickly & accurately answer all of your water filtration questions. Our resources include engineers and water treatment professionals which utilize virtually all known water treatment processes assuring our customers of the most economical, dependable, and environmentally friendly solutions. Our water treatment systems range from domestic residential households, light commercial / industrial operations to membrane cleaners, scale inhibitors, and water treatment chemicals.
We offer a full spectrum of water treatment systems including reverse osmosis, skid mount water treatment equipment, bottled water filtration, ultraviolet disinfection, membrane cleaning chemicals and scale inhibitors.
Custom water treatment designing: We have the expertise to custom design any reverse osmosis and water treatment system to fit your application needs. Wall mounted, skid mounted, horizontal, vertical, diamond plate, stainless steel, portable, high pressure, low pressure. In most cases systems are pre-wired and pre-plumbed for easy installation. Complete export capabilities and installation available. Home owners, Eurotech Water Systems offer residential whole house water treatment for well and municipal water sources. Choose from our salt free water softeners, iron filters, UV systems, reverse osmosis, high efficiency water softeners, lead, heavy metal removal, chlorine, and chemical filtration.
Yes, RO is generally an excellent choice for homeowners with every type of water present. A water softener or whole-house iron filter may also be advisable (depending one the level of relevant contaminants in your well water) to prevent membrane fouling thereby ensuring maximum membrane life and effectiveness.
– If your water source is a bore well.
– If your water is hard and salty.
– If you are located near an industrial belt or any contaminated source, your ground water must be having harmful chemicals such as heavy metals, nitrates, arsenic, fluorides which even in traces are harmful.
– If anyone is hypertensive or has heart disease or weak kidneys, low sodium, and low hardness water is essential not to aggravate the symptoms.
– If your water is coming through pipe line & plant of poor maintenance.
– If you are not having any deterrent TDS removal at your point of use.
No, the systems are provided with controls so that it is a fit and forget system. Our trained service staff will periodically attend to your unit to ensure its smooth performance.
Under no circumstances can you drink resin-softened water. Softeners convert hardness which is in the form of Calcium and Magnesium into Sodium. There is no reduction in the total salt content of the water. Softened water is good for washing clothes, preventing scaling in your geyser and washing machines. But under no circumstances it can be used for drinking or cooking.
Moreover, a softener cannot remove microbes from water.
Ultra Violet water purifier only inactivates microbes, that too they cannot remove protozoan cysts of amoebae and giardia. Also it does not reduce salt content of water while reverse osmosis water purifiers can virtually make any water potable, reverse osmosis purifier gives you sweet, pure and safe drinking water eliminating the harmful chemicals, microbes and excess salt and hardness from the water.
Ultraviolet water purifier (based on Ultra filtration membrane technology) filters bacteria, cysts, viruses, as well as colloidal impurities, but cannot filter dissolved salts from the water.
Eurotech has wide range of models.
Primarily it may be categorized as follows:
1. Domestic System (15 LPH to 25 LPH)
(a)Wall Mounted Model
(b)Sleek Counter Top Series
2. Commercial Systems (25 LPH to 100 LPH). Suitable for Restaurants, Schools, Clinics, Small offices, etc.
3. Industrial Systems (50 LPH to 1000000 LPH). Suitable for Industries, Hospitals, Govt. & Pvt. Offices.